Knowing SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition)
The SCADA system is a computer application that is used to monitor and control a plant or equipment located at a long distance. Because of its unique software application, which is managing any type of equipment by automation, companies with complex operations processes, like water and waste control, energy, oil and gas refining, transportation, telecommunications industries, employ the SCADA system to automate their operations, detect and correct problems, at the same time, and measure trends over time. For SCADA system to monitor and control a company's operating processes, it collects data and analyses them on a real-time basis.
There are four important functions which the SCADA system is programmed to do and these are: data acquisition, network data communication, data presentation, and control. To be able to perform these functions, SCADA system is equipped with the following components: sensors and control relays, Remote Telemetry Units (RTUs), master units, and a communication network, which consists of input/output signal hardware, networks, Human-machine Interface (HMI), controllers, communication, database, and software. Understand then the use of this 61850 simulator.
There are two types of devices which are utilized by the SCADA system to perform its controlling function and these devices are RTUs or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). Between these two devices, it is the RTUs which has a more advanced functionality feature allowing for a more efficient and secure monitoring system.
It is called Human-Machine Interface because it partners with a human operator by serving as a master station that communicates the processed status and information collected along the SCADA system to the human operator. Since all pieces of data taken from the entire complex unit are collected by the HMI, operators can easily view the system alarms and information through the HMI and through that decisions are made based on the communicated readings. For security reasons, SCADA information are kept on closed LAN (Local Area Network) or WAN (Wide Area Network) networks in order to prevent any sensitive data from being exposed to outsiders over the Internet.
Because of the expensive cost of utilizing LAN, another network support system through NetGuardian 832A may be employed which can support existing communications methods at remote sites, instead of LAN. In the future, if the company expands their LAN network into their other remote sites, the cost will still be worth the expansion investment as there will be savings by the company on RTU replacements, which are usually employed to support the new network.
These are the overall functions and features of the SCADA concentrator and SCADA system, although its functions/features will be employed on specifications by a company, - performs the work of an OPC Server or Protocol Translator, translate between any number of available protocols, includes a protocol analyzer, built in equation editor supports the creation of new data points based on raw data points and /or other equation points, OPC Certified, Conformance tested per DNP3 Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) Certification Procedure Subset Level2, report by Exception (RBE) is supported (transmitting only data changes, saving communication channel bandwidth), supports DNP3 Secure Authentication, supports selective logging of event data into a time-stamped Sequence of Events (SOE) log file, the Communication Protocol Analyzer Window displays and decodes transmitted and received messages, allows translation between data types and control methods from different protocols, supports mapping of points between Master and Slave, two Master, and/or two Slave protocol components.
For further references, visit https://www.britannica.com/technology/gateway-computing.